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Neuromarketing Methods

你是否考虑投资于神经营销解决方案, and would you like to know the latest about neuromarketing vendors and methodologies? The 最实用的十大网投 took a snapshot of the industry in 2021, answering your questions about the field. 最近发生了什么事?


Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the most widely used methodologies employed by neuromarketers today. 

How it works

EEG measures brain activity by detecting and amplifying faint electrical signals, informally called brainwaves, 由大脑持续发射. These electrical signals are the means by which our brain communicates and synchronizes activity across different anatomical regions. Variations in brainwave activity are indicators of changes in cognitive processing. Two metrics are commonly used to measure brainwave frequencies: power measures the amount of brainwave activity occurring at a particular frequency over a period of time; coherence measures the consistency or correlation of brainwave frequencies across different parts of the brain. Greater power means greater activity or energy in a given area at a given frequency; greater coherence between regions often means the regions are communicating as part of a cognitive process.

Pros and cons

It is the only brain measurement technique that can capture brain activity at the speed of cognition. It measures brain activity directly, rather than indirectly, through behaviors and choices. 脑电图设备已经变得更加廉价, portable, and wireless, 为移动设备开辟了新的可能性, in-store, and virtual reality studies. Some limitations of EEG are that metrics can be challenging to understand and difficult to interpret. Designing, running, and interpreting the results of EEG studies requires PhD-level expertise. Repeated measures are required to separate signals from the background noise of unrelated brain activity (the “signal-to-noise” problem). This can make it difficult to measure responses to novel stimuli such as new products or packaging. Neither is EEG a very suitable technique for measuring electrical activity originating deep within the brain, 比如在情感和记忆中心, because those signals become too faint and dispersed before they reach the surface of the scalp.

Read more on EEG:



How it works

Eye-tracking has a natural appeal because it is intuitive: We all know our eyes automatically follow what interests us, threatens us, or attracts us. Variations in eye movements, including speed of movement, duration of fixations, patterns and frequency of blinks, 以及视觉搜索行为的模式, are all relevant to how a person is responding to a visual stimulus like an ad, a video, a website, or a store shelf. Most dedicated eye-tracking systems use infrared (IR) light to find and trace eye movements and other important measures such as pupil size and distance for the stimulus source, 用于实验室系统和移动眼镜. Webcam-based systems are different in that they can only access the visible light captured by the webcam. 基于网络摄像头的眼球追踪仍然不如专用的红外系统精确, both temporally and spatially, but new developments in gaze recording technology are shrinking the performance gap between IR-based and IR-free eye-tracking.

Pros and cons

Eye-tracking is relatively inexpensive, scalable, and delivers results in short timeframes. 然而,也有一些限制. 眼球追踪本身并不能告诉你为什么有人在看某物. 它可以告诉你他们看到了什么,但不一定是他们感知到了什么. It cannot tell you whether visual attention is accompanied by positive or negative emotional valence. Another important limitation is that objects in the periphery (not recorded by this method) can still have a significant effect on reactions and subsequent behavior. 这些问题可以通过将眼球追踪与其他方法相结合来解决. 一种流行的组合是眼球追踪与面部表情编码, 哪些可以用来测量与固着相关的情绪效价, gaze paths, 以及瞳孔对市场刺激的反应. 

Read more on eye-tracking: 关于注意力,眼球追踪能告诉你什么,不能告诉你什么


Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the more accurate methods of tracing patterns in the brain. 

How it works

当大脑的某个特定部位更加活跃时,它就需要更多的氧气. 因此,流向这一区域的血液就会增加. 功能磁共振成像检测在认知任务中氧合血流量的变化, correlating to neural activity, 但它并不能测量神经活动本身. Researchers use fMRI data to address fundamental questions about the nature of consumer decision-making, consumer experiences, and value-learning. 这些见解被用来补充明确的回应, to help companies understand both the conscious and the non-conscious factors influencing consumer behavior.

Pros and cons

功能磁共振成像的使用是非侵入性的,它能提供更多关于e的细节.g.例如,与脑电图相比,一个人的感觉. 对于静态刺激,功能磁共振成像效果更好, such as packaging design, campaign slogans, payoffs and outdoor messaging. 因为它的时间分辨率很低, however, 它不太适用于动态刺激的测量, like video, TV shows, commercials, online user experience. 在这种情况下,观察大脑每时每刻的反应是很有趣的.

Read more on fMRI: 功能磁共振成像在商业研究中的应用

Implicit measures

Implicit measures or response time studies leverage the fact that human brains take time to think.

How it works

We take less time to think when we encounter things that are familiar or expected and we take more time when we encounter things that are novel or unexpected. Response time studies take advantage of this difference in processing speeds to provide a window into how concepts and attitudes are connected in long-term memory. “Strength of association” refers to the degree to which things “go together” in long-term memory. From that simple foundation, response time studies have expanded into a powerful set of tools to explore many mental phenomena, including how brands and products are connected to each other and related ideas in consumers’ minds.

Many different response time tests and implicit association measures have been developed over the years. Three of the most popular techniques used in neuromarketing today are semantic priming, affective priming, 内隐联想测验(IAT).

Pros and cons

The ability of response time studies to expose implicit attitudes is its biggest advantage as a technique in the neuromarketing toolkit. Numerous studies have shown not only that implicit attitudes can differ significantly from explicit, self-reported attitudes, but they can also sometimes produce better predictions of actual choices and behavior, 尤其是当人们行为冲动或处于压力之下时.

Response time tests, 当设计和执行得当时, can be run online at scale; they are inexpensive to conduct and straightforward to interpret; they require no sensors, specialized labs, or complex data analysis algorithms; and they can be turned around quickly. It is important to keep in mind, however, that the strength of an association is not a measure of the type of association it represents. 强关联可能代表一种身份(A就是B), a causal relation (A causes B), 简单的同现现象, or some other relationship. Just because someone strongly associates “dog” with “cat” does not mean they think dogs are cats. Implicit associations are unconscious connections that may or may not make logical sense. 它们相对容易识别,但需要谨慎解读.

Read more Implicit measures隐性措施,它是什么和如何使用它


Biometrics include physiological responses like perspiration, respiration, and heart rate. 

How it works

The term “biometrics” refers to a wide range of physiological changes that occur when human beings respond emotionally and physically to the world around them. 许多生物识别反应是不由自主的, so they provide a window into nonconscious processes that accompany consumer choice and behavior without conscious awareness. 

Neuroimaging technologies like EEG and fMRI capture CNS (Central Nervous System) activity inside the brain. Biometrics capture physical responses (muscle movements) directed by the brain through the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System). These physical actions are communicated through two subsystems within the PNS: the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the somatic nervous system (SNS). 由ANS发出的信号会冲击“平滑”肌肉, organs, 还有心脏和胃等腺体. They are relatively slow, mostly automatic, 并产生出汗等身体反应, heart rate, breathing, and pupil dilation. 来自社交网络的信号会影响骨骼肌系统, are much faster, and, importantly, 也处于至少部分自愿控制之下吗. 包括面部表情等反应, eye movements, blinks, 还有像走路和说话这样的身体动作. (Genco et al., 2013).

Pros and cons

Biometric measures are increasingly popular in neuromarketing due to their low cost, scalability, fast turnaround times, and intuitive metrics. Because different physiological reactions reflect different aspects of emotion (discrete, dimensional, arousal vs. valence) and cognition (attention, cognitive load, memory activation, fatigue), these measures are best used in combination with each other and with neuroimaging technologies like EEG and fMRI.

Galvanic Skin Response

The galvanic skin response (GSR, 哪些属于皮电活动的范畴, or EDA) refers to changes in sweat gland activity that are reflective of the intensity of our emotional state, 也被称为情绪唤醒.

Read more on Galvanic skin response (GSR)什么是皮肤电反应GSR以及它是如何工作的? 


Artificial intelligence and machine learning systems allow researchers to build better models to simulate and predict how people respond to marketing, products, brands, and shopping experiences.

How it works

在大多数使用机器最实用的十大网投的产品中, 最实用的十大网投有一些输入,最实用的十大网投希望为其生成特定的输出. For instance, the input is a picture and the output is whether it features a face or not. We call this machine learning when the algorithm transforming the input to the output is not a set of predefined rules designed by a programmer but is automatically derived from a large set of training data. 将输出映射到输入的算法是自动最实用的十大网投的, by the “machine” itself, hence machine learning.

In machine learning, the algorithm that sits between input and output is an artificial neural network. 这个网络是连接单元或节点的集合, 它松散地模拟了生物大脑中的神经元. Each node can send and receive signals from and to other nodes, it is connected to. The output that each unit sends is some non-linear function of the sum of its inputs. The weight of the connections between units determines the size of the effect that one unit has on the other. 通常,神经元聚集成一层一层的,类似于生物大脑.

Pros and cons

Like our brains, machine learning algorithms get smarter the more data they absorb. The main strength of these systems is their ability to discover patterns in complex data. They have two main weaknesses: their predictions assume the future will be much like the past, and their results do not provide explanations for why they work (or don't work). In addition, many consumers have reservations about the ethical implications of AI systems. To adopt AI, legitimate concerns about bias, consumer manipulation, and privacy need to be addressed.


Most of the respondents in our 2021 vendor survey have seen a shift towards the use of more online services, due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Some companies have stopped using lab research and moved completely to online neuromarketing research. 在线面部编码和眼球追踪研究, in particular, have really taken flight, 还有调查研究和内隐测试. 

Another development is that more mainstream or standard methodologies have been refined so data can be analyzed quicker, 营销人员现在可以更容易地解读广告结果. “最实用的十大网投已经完善了最实用的十大网投的面部编码服务,并将更多产品数字化, 让它们在网上更灵活、更可用。”, said one respondent. Several companies have used this period of time to introduce new offerings: “We launched our predictive eye-tracking platform in June 2020, and we have shifted our focus towards a platform that is more scalable and brings neurotechnology to a broader market,” commented one vendor.

Another company has focused on innovative methodologies with the addition of smart-speaker and augmented reality surveys, as well as the use of EEG-UX, 以更好地捕捉消费者免提体验, in-the-moment, and in-context.

One respondent said it had introduced an online version of their platform to allow their clients to perform state-of-the-art biometric research remotely. 其他人则更好地整合了现有的技术:“脑电图的整合, eye-tracking, VR为零售和货架研究提供了一种全新的方法, that's both highly realistic and offers a high degree of experimental control and stimulus randomization”, one vendor explained.

Looking at the future

When the respondents were asked whether they expected any shifts in terms of the methodology used in the near future, 大多数人都预见到了在线方式的增长.g., 隐式和面部编码继续, 尽管不一定以其他方法(如脑电图)为代价. Another development to watch is the integration of AI and machine learning as a means of building predictive success models for clients and more sophisticated metrics. 这是由于过去一年由于Covid-19带来的变化, 比如远程工作和虚拟研究, 对当下和语境研究的需求将继续增加. Clients have found a more robust and engaged sample in addition to the convenience of online research. 研究方法将继续适应这些新的环境. 

The unforeseen circumstances of the pandemic have opened a space for adaptability and innovation. 更容易接触到思想领袖和教育机会, clients are better informed about the types of tools and available methodologies. The neuromarketing field has matured with clients asking better questions and expecting more actionable results. Methodologies all have limitations; however, finding ways for tools to complement each other will generate useful frameworks for studying human behavior.

More info? 下载神经营销学技术和方法摘要表 (根据《全球最大的网投平台》)